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Environment - Waste incineration

The incineration of waste in a cement kiln is not only an energy recovery of waste, but also a very beneficial material recovery of the inorganic component of waste.


The unique advantages of the incineration of waste in cement rotary kilns are:


  • high combustion temperatures and a guaranteed oxidising atmosphere during clinker firing, which allows a perfect high-temperature destruction in the oxidising atmosphere
  • a sufficiently long retention time for the incinerated substrates in high-temperature zones
  • non-waste incineration of any organic substrates without generating ash, as it is immediately bound to the burnt clinker
  • utilization of the thermal content of organic substrates and saving noble fuels,
  • formation of non-toxic flue gas
  • high turbulence of gaseous streams, i. e. large mixing of combustion components with hot combustion air and flue gas
  • high organization of work with the possibility of an automated control of the combustion process

The incineration of organic waste in cement rotary kilns is an economical way to recover its energy content and to save expensive noble fuels. This involves waste-free, environmentally-friendly, hygienic, economic disposal of waste with a perfect recovery of its energy and material component, with reduced emissions, and therefore this use of waste as a fuel in cement rotary kilns contributes to sustainable development.

The incineration of waste in cement rotary kilns helps to reduce the cost of the cement production and thus maintain the competitiveness of cement plants. New activities related to the preparation of alternative waste fuels help to increase employment.

The recovery of alternative fuels contributes to the Slovak Republic Competitiveness Development Strategy in accordance with the MINERVA programme.


End-of-life tyres


Považská cementáreň, a. s., Ladce has been successfully burning end-of-life tyres and rubber waste in its rotary kiln with a dispersion heat exchanger since 1983.

Long-term experience has shown the possibility of replacing about 10% of the noble fuel, while there is still a potential for further savings.

The results of the incineration showed a perfectly managed process of disposal of end-of-life tyres and rubber waste without any negative impact on the quality of the production and environment.

In this way, Považská cementáreň, a. s. Ladce, can smoothly dispose of 10,000 tons of end-of-life tyres and rubber waste per year.


Meat-and-bone meal


Považská cementáreň, a. s., Ladce was the first Slovak cement plant that took an active role in preventing the spread of BSE in the Slovak Republic. Already during the trial operation of the co-incineration of the meat-and-bone meal in 2001-2002, very significant facts were found which confirmed that the cement rotary kiln ensures safe, ecological, waste-free and economic disposal of stabilised risk materials of animal origin from rendering plants. Based on the analysis of these facts, Považská cementáreň, a.s. has developed a completely new BIOTRIX ecotechnology for significantly higher recovery of these wastes with further reduction of CO2 emissions.


BIOTRIX technology is based on three pillars:


  • high-temperature destruction in flames
  • new method of controlling the quality of clinker based on the waste-free binding of ash to clinker with the suppression of the inhibitory effect of phosphorus on the properties of cement clinker
  • public control of NOx, CO and PM emissions

BIOTRIX is a demonstration of the harmonization of the results of the company´s own research, when implemented innovations contributed to the intelligent solution of the society-wide problem with the global ecological and economic effect. BIOTRIX eco-technology is also great for other bio-waste.

In 2003, Považská cementáreň a.s., Ladce was awarded the honorary recognition of the President of the Industrial Property Office of the Slovak Republic for an extremely valuable industrial legally protected technical solution for the “Method of disposal of treated organic waste by incineration in cement rotary kilns”. BIOTRIX eco-technology was awarded the Golden Plaque of the 14th Trade Fair for Energy Efficiency and Rationalization of Energy Utilization RACIOENERGIA 2004.


Solid alternative fuels


In 2005 solid alternative fuels (SAFs) were added to the existing alternative fuels. Treated waste from textiles, plastics, wood and paper is incinerated in a modern rotary kiln at a high temperature. The cement plant uses the high calorific value of waste, which would otherwise devastate the environment. The dosage of solid alternative fuels in the cement plant will be further increased to an acceptable technological limit.

The new technology is ready to increase the volume of waste disposed of, which, in addition to economic effects, also brings significant social benefits, especially after the change in the legislation of the Slovak Republic in favour of the use of alternative energy sources and, in particular, stopping dumping of valuable raw materials. SAF-F must meet strict quality criteria as a conventional certified fuel.

Currently, alternative fuels account for 30% of the total energy consumption and their combustion is controlled by the competent environmental protection authorities according to EU standards. The greening of production in Považská cementáreň, a.s. contributed significantly to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and dustiness in the air.


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